Author’s NoteThis research is a part of R4D, Research Project, Feminization of Agriculture, Transition and Rural Employment (FATE) led by University of Bern, Switzerland. The study sites face severe infrastructural challenges, particularly poor roads. The main aim of these interviews was to understand the origin of the disease on cardamom farms, its impact on the lives of farmers, and the coping strategies they adopted. Planting new species of cardamom was reported as one coping strategy. It can give farmers time to prepare alternative measures at a reasonable pace without being distressed. The mismatch between demand and supply for agricultural support suggests the need for reconsideration of the types of support offered and the channels through which it is offered. We [families] have to divide our work between husband and wife . Ilam, is well known for its fertile soil and variety of agricultural production (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Table 1. A recent report shows 67,000 households engaged in cardamom farming across Nepal, which includes 25,000 households from Ilam, Taplejung, and Panchthar districts (“Farmers Worried Due to Failing Cardamom Production,” 2014). endstream endobj startxref Study Areas and Main Crops Grown. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. About 84% of the cardamom harvest comes from the eastern region, including Ilam, Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Dhankuta, Bhojpur, Tehrathum, and Panchthar districts (Durbeck & Torstan, 2010; MoAD, 2013). This reflects issues of trust between local institutions and beneficiaries, and suggests weak monitoring of institutions. This could relate to change in government officials or policies, which could restrict implementation or change existing policies or actions (Birner & Resnick, 2010). For example, crop insurance can help farmers stabilize their income, invest in agriculture, and decrease their vulnerability and need for outside assistance when a crop fails (Swain, 2014). Table 5 summarizes respondents’ reports of crop decline; there are no recorded data of production decline at the local level in Nepal. Because cardamom entered Nepal from Sikkim, the Nepal government could collaborate with Sikkim to learn about the situation of cardamom there and progress toward sustainable cardamom farming. A VDC is the lower administrative unit and a decentralized body run by the VDC Secretary, appointed and governed by the central government. Coastal farmers’ perception of climate change effects on agriculture at Galachipa Upazila under Patuakhali district of Bangladesh, World Institute for Development Economics Research, International Food Policy Research Institute, Smallholder participation in contract farming: Comparative evidence from five countries, Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, Settlements and land-use patterns in the Lepcha Reserve-Dzongu zone in the Sikkim Himalaya, India, Livelihoods improvement through sustainable large cardamom cultivation in North Sikkim, The political economy of policies for smallholder agriculture, Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission and Central Bureau of Statistics, Alaichi (Cardamom): Widely cultivated and exported but limited innovations in processing and market expansion, Institutional and technological innovation: Understanding agricultural adaptation to climate change in Nepal, Research as capacity building: The case of an NGO facilitated post-harvest innovation system for the Himalayan Hills, Climate change awareness and coping strategies of cocoa farmers in rural Ghana. Presently, Nepal is the largest producer of large cardamom with 68% share in the market, followed by India (22%) and Bhutan (9%). Naya Bazar, in northeastern Ilam, has an area of 21.51 km2 and elevation ranging from 600 to 2,200 m. Naya Bazar has 1,090 households with 4,743 people. . this video gives knowledge about how to cardamom cultivation in Nepal by Nepali successful farmer who cultivate cardamom since many years! (, Chapagain, S. P., Pathak, A., Rai, J. K. (, Chhetri, N., Chaudhary, P., Tiwari, P. R., Yadav, R. B. During a crisis, farmers expect government institutions to help, especially when customary practices have not solved the problem. “Innovation,” in this article, refers to a systematic process of interaction between institutions, policies, and stakeholders to produce new processes of social and economic transformation (Edquist, 1997; Lundvall, 1992). Flower Farming. Likewise, a municipality is a single administrative unit governed by a mayor with full authority given by the national laws. Farmers have tried to commercialize their products but have failed due to weak or absent market channels. The other 16 respondents were still producing cardamom in small amounts despite the disease infestation. In the study sites, farmers had little access to agricultural institutions, for which reviving cardamom was in any case not the only priority. Pyang, Naya Bazar, and Jirmale had just established a cardamom cooperative during the time of the field visit, and only the cooperative in Jirmale was functional. (2017). Despite constraints, farmers—particularly educated men who were also known as local cardamom traders—traveled to the Cardamom Development Center in Ilam and nearby cities including Kathmandu to explore possible ways to revive the cardamom crop. For the farmers, such reflection was based on their own production and knowledge; for the officials, it came from interactions with the farmers and from their own situational assessment. In in-depth interviews, respondents revealed that they thought this would kill the diseases permanently, but it was ineffective, and production continued to decline. Despite declines in production, the good return on investment has encouraged farmers to continue growing cardamom. (, Farmers worried due to failing cardamom production . Themes were generated on the basis of the coding, and a narrative analysis was developed to explain the findings, grounded in the existing literature. As Table 4 shows, cardamom production dropped sharply from 2007/2008 to 2012/2013, then rose somewhat in the following year (possibly due to measures taken to combat disease). Despite good harvests, farmers made no income due to lack of market access; respondents reported feeding the ground apples to their cattle. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Cardamom Farming in Nepal Introduction: Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) Previous studies have found that lack of human resources for marketing and of proper infrastructure hinders Nepal’s agriculture sector (Upreti, K. C., Mallett, & Babajanian, 2012; Yadav & Lian, 2009). Districts of Nepal highlighting Ilam, Taplejung, and Panchthar. Using the VDC profile, the local government could target poorer households first. Other private to public entities have also collaborated on agricultural research and technological support. Respondents mentioned attempts to revive the crop using new species of cardamom. Although their cardamom-producing areas were small, the high returns on this crop had made it possible to fill their food needs; replacing cardamom with lower value crops was likely to generate lower income or none at all. Local Government Institutions Supporting Cardamom Farmers. (2008) categorize these as ex-ante and ex-post risk management strategies; the ex-ante strategy also includes using irrigation. A focus group participant stated. . Institutional innovation in the agriculture sector in Nepal emerged in 1924 with the establishment of the Department of Agriculture to conduct research and develop agricultural technologies (Chhetri, Chaudhary, Tiwari, & Yadav, 2011). He is the team leader of the FATE project under which this research is conducted. arrow_back. Second, supports should be prioritized based on households’ immediate needs. Sharma et al. Codes were generated from the findings using manual open coding. Cardamom is a major cash crop in the region, but the recent collapse of cardamom prices has affected farmers hard in all three countries. They included burning fields, changing land use patterns, diversifying crops, and seeking institutional support. In Nepal, cardamom, coffee, tea, pulses, and some fruits are high-value crops in high demand in national and interna-tional markets (Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2012). the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. About ICIMOD The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, ICIMOD, is a regional knowledge ... cardamom farming, the causes of such changes, and their impact on the household economy and livelihoods. . Men reported traveling to fetch new species, while women and elderly people helped plant. Conducting a political economy analysis on data from Ilam district, this study investigated the impact of crop disease on farmers’ livelihoods, as well as both individual and institutional efforts to combat the disease. According to Von Thunen’s theory, infrastructure is essential to the expansion of agricultural markets (Peet, 2010). Some cardamom farmers in eastern Nepal have diversified their crops or stopped growing cardamom (Chapagain et al., 2014; Khadka, 2011). (, Kumari, B. The authors are grateful to the people of Pyang, Chamaita, Naya Bazar, and Jirmale village development committees (VDCs) of Ilam district for their valuable information. Therefore, risks faced by farmers could be minimized through institutional innovation (Achterbosch et al., 2014). Finally, six key informant interviews were conducted with officials from the cardamom sector, to understand the supply side of institutional assistance for farmers affected by the crop disease outbreak. This reflects the central government’s concern about crop disease and related issues. However, the return was not even half of what they earned from cardamom. Coping better with current climatic variability in the rain-fed farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa: An essential first step in adapting to future climate change? Nepal is the First Largest producer of Big Cardamom with 68% share, followed by India 22% and Bhutan 9%. Nepal is the largest exporter of large cardamom in the world and it exports about 95% of the produce to India alone (ICIMOD, 2016). Other researchers have pointed out the need for sound policies and institutions to protect crops during crisis (Sharma, Sharma, & Sharma, 2009), and have argued (Singh & Pothula, 2013) that, despite policies on cardamom improvement, farmers still face problems because of their rural orientation and limited knowledge about policies due to weak institutional capacity. They could also include addressing issues of crop loss, vulnerability, livelihoods, and food security at the household or community level. India is a major market for large cardamom produced in Nepal. The Mechi Highway connects Ilam to Jhapa district. Large cardamom In Nepal over 21,960 households in 37 districts are engaged in its farming. Overall, efforts to address the issues of cardamom disease remain incomplete. About four respondents, with landholdings ranging from 10 to 15 ha, reported using their land for dairy farming and tea cultivation. Ilam district remains foggy and misty all year round. (. Although coping strategies, particularly crop substitution and diversification, remained similar among rich and poor farmers, seeking wage work was common among the latter, who worked, for example, as carpenters and porters. Nepal’s agriculture in general and cash crops in particular is in the process of transition from self-employed subsistence farming to wage-labor based high-value agriculture like cardamom and ginger. It also reveals distressed farmers’ unwillingness to take the lead due to loss of cardamom. Since then, prices have been rising gradually, reaching Rs 2,250 per kg in August. 2,528 million or about US$23.6 million, on about 14,847 ha of land in 40 districts (MoAD, 2015). Similarly, in Sikkim, India, cardamom cultivated by the indigenous Lepcha people in the upper Dzongu has declined due to disease (Bhasin, 2011; Bhattarai, Deka, Chhetri, Harsha, & Gupta, 2013). These women spent their share from cardamom farming on food and items needed by their children, like books. In Bangladesh, farmers have worked in the garment and textile industries and performed wage labor when crops failed (Rakib, Rahman, Akter, & Bhuiyan, 2014). We help importers around the world understand the global market of food & agriculture, get connected with the right suppliers and transact with them easily. This may call into question the objective on which cooperatives are established and the framework in which these cooperatives function. Focus group discussion is an effective tool to acquire a vivid sense of shocks, vulnerability, and coping strategies (Mengistu, 2011). Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Several study participants said that voluntarily seeking assistance from agricultural institutions was challenging. In one focus group discussion, a male cardamom farmer reflected. But they also shared their dissatisfaction with poor targeting in providing seedlings. Chamaita, in northern Ilam, has an area of 35.10 km2, elevation ranging from 980 to 2,840 meters (m), and a population of 6,818 people in 1,294 households. However, production is not the same every year, which creates an adverse impact on farmers’ livelihoods (Achterbosch et al., 2014). This crop became commercial in 1953, influencing farmers from agrarian Nepal to embrace a new livelihood option. Large cardamom production has declined in recent decades due to viruses, including chirke (mosaic streak) and furkey (bushy dwarf), and fungi (SNV, 2008). Even so, they reported that cardamom farming had been their traditional primary occupation. Men mostly do the traveling because we [women] have to perform household work, which we have been doing for a long time. In recent years, production of these cash crops has increased with high market prices, benefiting farmers and motivating them to produce more. Respondents were not willing to give up cardamom farming due to its high return. Large cardamom was introduced into Ilam (Nepal) in 1865 AD, nearly 143 years ago by Nepalese laborers from Sikkim. Subscribe to Get Post in E-mail. Nepal is also famous for orthodox tea, large cardamom, turmeric and zinger too. Each of these VDC consists of nine wards or settlements. Questions covered elements of cardamom farming and livelihoods before and after disease infestation, perceptions about the disease infestation and resulting crop failure, farmers’ knowledge of the disease, impacts of the decline in production, coping strategies, and institutional support during the crisis. (2009) assert that there is a need for sound policies and institutions to protect the cardamom crop. Farmers have to apply fertilizer and irrigate regularly. The price of cardamom has doubled this year compared to its price last year. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Cooper et al. or Alainchi in Nepali, is a perennial herbaceous plant with subterranean rhizomes that give rise to several leafy shoots and panicles. This reflects weak institutional arrangements in the agriculture sector. Each focus group had six people. Findings suggest a serious need for institutional innovation to manage cardamom farms. In the short time span of 15 years, a vast majority of farmers in the study area ventured into cardamom export production. Common varieties of large cardamom in Nepal 18 8. We found agriculture is more commercialized in east Nepal as compared to west part of the country. Weak institutions may have adverse impacts on farmer’s lives, while stronger institutions might help transform agriculture (African Union, 2014). This shows that farmers use returns, after fulfilling their food and health needs, to invest in business. Five respondents (three male and two female) stated that cardamom farming helped them pay debts. 233 0 obj <>stream The situation we encountered during fieldwork coincides with previous findings that institutions should help address climate change issues through transfer of knowledge about farming techniques and disease control (Akanda & Howlader, 2015; Codjoe et al., 2013; Coulibaly et al., 2015; Okonya et al., 2013; Oluwatusin, 2014; Oyekale & Oladele, 2012; Wilk et al., 2012). In the study by VDCs, very few settlements have been able to continue producing cardamom. Large Cardamom Production and Yield in Nepal. Her guidance during this period was great motivation to push through this work. The main causes of this decline are climate change and disease, in particular chirke (mosaic streak), furkey (bushy dwarf), and a fungus (rhizome rot; see Chapagain et al., 2014; Khadka, 2011; Maharjan, 2014; Singh & Pothula, 2013; SNV, 2008; Stoep et al., 2010). Due to weak capacity, local government support was limited to providing training and distributing new varieties of cardamom. In the cardamom sector, technology use remains null. Most farmers who participated in this study knew little and cared less about government policies, on cardamom or agriculture in general, stating that they would do no good. Large Cardamom Production in Ilam, 2006-2014. There is no comparison of other crops with cardamom . There is a need for a systematic approach to cardamom disease that not only addresses crop problems but also involves stakeholders including farmers, officials, technicians, experts, and policy makers (Klerkx, Mierlo, & Leeuwis, 2012; Pautasso & Pautasso, 2010; Rodenburg et al., 2015; Schut, van Paassen, Leeuwis, & Klerkx, 2014). One recent study found differences in coping strategies among farmers in far-west Nepal depending on their income levels: Poorer farmer families engaged in wage labor (by both adults and children) and sold livestock, while wealthier farmers relied on savings and stored grains (Gentle & Maraseni, 2012). All 31 participants in in-depth interviews said cardamom farming had improved their livelihoods. The lack of roads and infrastructure has limited some rural areas’ access to markets. (, Munakarmi, N. N., Shrestha, R. L., Rana, N, Shrestha, J. K. C., Shrestha, S., Koirala, R., Shrestha, S. (, National Research Programme for Plantation Development . This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Innovation refers to a set of fruitful interactions between various stakeholders to achieve successful transformation (Clark et al., 2003; Edquist, 1997; Lundvall, 1992; Prasad, 2007), but the interaction between policy makers, farmers, and stakeholders in the cardamom sector (Figure 4) is weak, due to poor institutional capacity and expertise. Kathmandu, Nepal: International Centre for … This calls for institutional innovation at the micro level. At the institutional level, leadership training could be an important step. This coincides with reports on recent studies of cardamom farming in Sikkim, which emphasize climate change as the major cause of production decline (see Bhattarai et al., 2013; Partap et al., 2014). Some districts outside the eastern hills produce cardamom in lesser quantities, including 56 MT in Kavre in the central region and 50 MT in Lamjung in the western region (MoAD, 2013). The largest ethnic group in Ilam is the Rai, followed by the Brahmin, Limbu, Tamang, Chhetri, and Dalit (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). From the demand side, farmers expressed concern about lack of proper targeting in the distribution of cardamom seedlings. Finally, the results of this study suggest that merely identifying a crop as having high value is not enough to ensure economic growth in a country like Nepal, which faces challenges of geography, topography, lack of markets, weak infrastructure, and meager institutional capacity. It also refers to people working together to reframe methods and approaches and research questions (Clark, Hall, Sulaiman, & Naik, 2003; Prasad, 2007). Some reported buying these from neighbors who had already visited Salakpur or from government institutions. Decline in cardamom production led these women to worry about livelihoods and their children’s education. Study participants also reported, particularly in the focus group discussions, that reviving cardamom farming was difficult for poorer households because cardamom takes time to mature before bearing fruit, like some other cash crops (Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014). Table 3. Institutions should be formed to support farmers taking alternative measures. Providing incentives to encourage participation could help improve this situation. Government policy focuses on combating cardamom disease and the decline in production, but it does not cover the use of information technology to facilitate interactions or the provision of a farmers’ safety net. The hilly regions of Nepal are prone to disasters and shocks, and more research is needed on coping mechanisms in these regions. Figure 3. Thus, farmers generated their own coping strategy and relied on each other, yet failed. Despite acquiring substantial revenue from cardamom, the national government has failed to appoint adequate crop experts at the local level. To minimize the risks to crops and protect farmers’ livelihoods, adaptive measures are required (Wilcock, Elliott, Hudson, Parkyn, & Quinn, 2008). For example, in Pyang, farmers produced ground apples or yam like fruits with taste of apples, cauliflowers, and other vegetables. To buy a new species called Salakpurey cardamom, respondents visited Salakpur village in Jirmale. Mr. Reddy-May 23, 2017. Respondents reported receiving new species of cardamom seedlings and training from the government institutions. Livestock is one of the important sources of cash income of the farm households. This study investigated farmers’ strategies for coping with disease in large cardamom in eastern Nepal, which has undergone a tremendous decline in production. In a crisis like this, the role of resilience—defined as the ability to respond to changes (Coulibaly et al., 2015)—is central. Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. In Nepal, rural people with a decent income tend to send their children to school in urban areas for a better education. One member of each household producing cardamom, either male or female, can join this cooperative, which acts as a savings institution and provides loans to members. However, the revival process is ongoing, and many farmers reported that cardamom production for export was the only means to improve their livelihoods. (Eds.). Due to the dearth of documentation on crop disease and its impact, primary data were collected for this study. Major problems in large cardamom farming in Nepal 24 11 . In the Eastern part of Nepal, high-value crops such as cardamom, ginger, broom, tea, milk, fresh vegetables, chilies, kiwi, and tea are produced by farmers. This study began with a context mapping exercise conducted in March and April 2015 to explore the situation of cardamom farming in Ilam after disease infestation. Such programs may include institutional arrangements with action plans, guidance, and a framework to address crop issues in rural areas and proper targeting of vulnerable farmers. The presence and support of local government institutions and cooperatives suggest some hope for cardamom revival. Other markets are Singapore, United Kingdom, and United Arab Emirates (Maharjan, 2014; Nepal Trade Integration Strategy, 2010). (, Cooper, P. J. M., Dimes, J., Rao, K. P. C., Shapiro, B. is the world's one of the most ancient spices, popularly known as Alainchi in Nepali and renounced as Black Gold, Queen of Spices.It belongs to Zingiberaceae family and is a perennial soft-stemmed low-volume, high-value crop [].Originating in the Eastern Himalayan region of Nepal and Sikkim (India), the crop is grown only in … 232 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[227 7]/Info 226 0 R/Length 36/Prev 1214728/Root 228 0 R/Size 234/Type/XRef/W[1 2 0]>>stream (, Stanley, J., Chandrasekaran, S., Preetha, G., Kuttalam, S., Sheeba, R. J. Table 6. Although awareness has been raised and training has been provided, alternatives have not been thoroughly assessed. The in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews in Chamaita, Pyang, and Naya Bazar revealed a more than 90% decline in cardamom production. The Political Economy of Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies, and Institutional Innovation, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2012, Stanley, Chandrasekaran, Preetha, Kuttalam, & Sheeba, 2014, Ministry of Agriculture and Development [MoAD], 2014b, “Farmers Worried Due to Failing Cardamom Production,” 2014, Partap, Sharma, Gurung, Chhetri, & Sharma, 2014, Stoep, Pokharel, Rajbhandari, & Shrestha, 2010, National Research Programme for Plantation Development, 2012, SNV Netherlands Development Organization [SNV], 2008, Bhattarai, Deka, Chhetri, Harsha, & Gupta, 2013, Coulibaly, Gbetibouo, Kundhlande, Sileshi, & Beedy, 2015, Famine Early Warning Systems Network [FEWS NET], 2013, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], 2014, Chhetri, Chaudhary, Tiwari, & Yadav, 2011, Wilcock, Elliott, Hudson, Parkyn, & Quinn, 2008, Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014, Kumari, Thiruchelvam, Dissanayake, & Lasantha, 2010, Upreti, K. C., Mallett, & Babajanian, 2012, Schut, van Paassen, Leeuwis, & Klerkx, 2014, Babu, Glendenning, Asenso-Okyere, & Govindarajan, 2012, http://www.ipsnews.net/topics/malabo-declaration-on-accelerated-agricultural-growth-and-transformation-for-shared-prosperity-and-improved-livelihoods/, http://federation.ens.fr/ydepot/actua/JOURNE/2008_10_03/COELMARK.pdf, http://www.ifpri.org/publication/strategies-and-priorities-african-agriculture, http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TAR/article/view/3307/2681, http://sangamtimes.blogspot.com/2012/05/output-of-meat-milk-cash-crops.html. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Figure 2. Cardamom farming, which was limited to eastern Nepal till a few years ago, is becoming popular across the country. engaged in its farming in Nepal. These respondents also diversified their crops. Nepali laborers in Sikkim, India, introduced cardamom to Ilam district during the 19th century. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Strategies varied by household circumstances (size of landholding, alternative income sources, and access to supporting institutions). Although disease was the main reported cause of crop decline, respondents also revealed other causes, including insufficient use of irrigation due to lack of water and improper use of fertilizer and use of conventional farming methods without understanding the changes in climate and soil conditions. The failure of the ground apple project in Pyang is one concrete example of market failure caused by lack of institutional innovation. As another risk management option, respondents frequently sought support from institutions. Pathak (2014) indicates that institutional innovation should act as a channel beneficial to the poor, where the poor can also be a part of the interaction. h�b```"n0�� ̀ ���,�L*KD� 4B�0�s0�3�;g����Odܺ@�saCρ5��o'J��l���K,��^��*ӌ�O��.HlP�u`����?L�p6�%,�����} ԃ}�B[���F�,A��¦�Eo����;o���m�9���9 Of the 17 female participants in in-depth interviews, 13 stated that cardamom produced more than 70% of their income. It can be inferred that cardamom cultivators are still waiting for institutions to emerge with effective programs. To promote innovation, the National Agricultural Research and Service Center was established under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture; the name was changed to Nepal Agricultural Research Council in 1991 (Chhetri et al., 2011). The rise in cardamom prices over the years has dismayed farmers who lost their farms to crop disease, because of their perception that they could have earned good returns if their crops had not been infected. Jirmale covers an area of 37.78 km2 and borders Darjeeling, India, which lies to the east; elevation ranges from 275 to 1,625 m. There are 1,074 households in Jirmale with 5,191 people (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). The interviews were recorded, with the consent of the respondents and in accordance with ethical research norms. Traditionally, large cardamom has grown wild in these hills, in soil considered unfit for cultivating food crops. This photo gallery emerged during the fieldwork in East Nepal conducted for my PhD thesis “Commercialisation and the ‘good life'” between September and December 2018. In this study, it was used to explore the gap between farmers’ efforts to cope with cardamom disease and the institutional support for those efforts. . First, the Cardamom Development Center alone cannot fulfill farmers’ needs. Most of us are unaware of the roads and location of the institutions . There is a need to assess issues of political economy while aiming for institutional innovation. Statistical Information On Nepalese Agriculture Government Of Nepal Ministry Of Agricultural Development Monitoring, Evaluation And Statistics Division Agri Statistics Section. Mr. Reddy-May 23, 2017 [12] Moad. (, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives . The markets for these districts are smaller than the markets in the eastern region. To protect and improve farmers’ livelihoods, institutional innovation at the community level is needed, along with policies that provide immediate and sustainable support during crises. We invited stakeholders from various disciplines, including officials from the Agriculture Development Office, Cardamom Development Center, Women’s Empowerment Association, and Ilam Chamber of Commerce, as well as other cardamom researchers, journalists, traders, and farmers. The authors would like to acknowledge the entire Feminization of Agriculture, Transition and Rural Employment (FATE) team for their direct and indirect support. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. This study applied political economy analysis to qualitative research (Harris, 2013). Political economy analysis framework. Large cardamom price plunges three-fold. The study focused on the attempts made by local institutions to address crop disease. Respondents revealed that these cooperatives were relatively new and had been established to revive and promote cardamom farming. Large cardamom farming in changing climatic and socioeconomic conditions in the Sikkim Himalayas (ICIMOD Working paper). In-depth interviews also revealed that poorer households with smaller landholdings were especially distressed by and vulnerable to cardamom disease. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? ), also known as the “queen of spices,” is the most prominent cash crop, attracting high revenues across the globe (Stanley, Chandrasekaran, Preetha, Kuttalam, & Sheeba, 2014). Table 2. With cardamom prices increasing steadily over the past one decade, …

cardamom farming in nepal

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