They will learn how differences in land cover type may lead to difference in ecosystem (biological, physical and social) features, and how biological, physical and/or social features of an ecosystem can be inter-related. In this resource, the complex food-webs of wetlands are explored through a case study of the Macquarie Marshes in northern NSW–a designated Ramsar site. Looking at abiotic factors such as stream temperature, stream depth and conductivity can indicate the health of the stream as well as the surrounding land. This unit integrates ecology and evolution by focusing on the story of Foundry Cove, where thousands of pounds of cadmium waste were dumped from the 1950s through 1970s. Change since 1609: Settlement Changes Hudson Valley plant communities, Changes in Water Quality in Hudson River Wetlands, Climate Change and Sea Level Rise (High School and Middle School), Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: HRECOS Water Temperature (High School), Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: HRECOS Water Temperature (Middle School), Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: the Future of the Hudson and NYC (High School and Middle School), Comparison of Grass Biomass in Varying Amounts of Sunlight, Schoolyard Ecology Urban Ecosystems, Data on PCBs in Fish from Catskill and Troy, Data on PCBs in Fish from George Washington Bridge and Troy, Data on PCBs in Fish from Haverstraw and Troy, Data on PCBs in Fish from Poughkeepsie and Troy, Day 1: Modeling the Interaction of Salinity and Diatom Populations in the Hudson Estuary, Day 2-3: Modeling the Interaction of Salinity and Diatom Populations in the Hudson Estuary, Day in the Life of the Hudson (Snapshot Day), Dead Leaf Storyboards- Performance Assessment, K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12, Decomposition and Microbial Growth in Tivoli Bay Plants, Decomposition: Creating & Measuring Leaf Packets, Decomposition: “Who Decomposed Our Leaves?”, Do Hudson River striped bass PCB levels vary by location? Ongoing data collection continues to this day. Freshwater Ecosystems by Bivalves. Hudson River estuary. A basic overview of pollution, focusing on the Hudson River watershed. Students will know the effects of deforestation on an ecosystem and be able to use data to explain ways that deforestation impacts a stream. If we start to show the different connections, our food chain starts to look more like a food web. As you can see plants and algae are always the basis for the food web. Students will read about the basics of dissolved oxygen and the ways in which it can be measured. Thinking about the flow of matter and energy with students is one of the key ways of exploring ecosystems. Students work in groups to rank four sites according to their suitability for planting shrubs, then independently complete a diagram showing a nutrient cycle for the preferred site. Which ground dwelling insects live in this area? A fun outdoor activity demonstrates to the students concepts There are many monitoring sites along the Hudson River. %PDF-1.5 %���� Students should now complete the questions for Part 2 in their packets. Which insects live on grasses and bushes in fields and lawns? A food web can be described as a "who eats whom" diagram that shows the complex feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Students will know how soil compaction affects water infiltration and will be able to design and carry out a simple experiment to test their ideas. The Cary Institute has been involved in a long-term study to monitor the increase of sodium chloride in our local stream over the last 25 years. �����4ˁ���d#}�/A�Aݡ�ayk �/�5�/x�(�7��t���]�����v�usWL��O�9�T�:�_�Xk�iF��́� Students will use data to create a scatter plot by hand and be able to understand the importance of replication and the intrinsic link between variability and the conclusions that can be drawn from data. Students will know how increased carbon dioxide levels affect temperature and be able to graph and interpret data that demonstrates this relationship. This unit introduces students to the ecosystem concept using the Hudson River ecosystem. The arrows indicate what eats what. Engage: Formative Assessment: How did zebra mussels affect the dissolved oxygen and water transparency of the Hudson River? Students will know how to answer the question, “How likely is it that a striped bass caught near where the students live on the Hudson River will be above the FDA supermarket standard of 2 ppm?”   and be able to provide evidence to support their answer. Students will know that having different types of trees affects forest ecosystem function, and will be able to explain the impacts of changing species composition on function. Students will understand the different aspects of water quality and be able to use water quality test kits to practice testing for pollutants. Wetlands play a vital role in protecting habitats for fish and other wildlife, improving water quality, and creating a buffer for storm surges and floodwaters. These data are part of a long-term record from the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, showing the change over time of different components of the Hudson River ecosystem in response to the zebra mussel invasion. During Part 2 students will be split into six teams. When people think of ecology, they usually imagine studies out in the country. In these lessons, students construct their own understanding of ecosystems through investigations in their schoolyard, developing ideas about ecological processes and functions. ), barnacles (Balanus sp. Effects of an invasive bivalve on fish in the  Students will understand the different aspects of pollution and be able to explain why salt pollution is a problem. Students will know what lives in the Hudson River, and will be able to create a food web drawing to represent the organisms living in the river. An overview of how the tides change in the Hudson River estuary. Students will know how Hudson River tomcod evolved resistance to PCBs and be able to critically compare the way different news outlets choose to tell a scientific story. What organisms are in all of the diagrams? Strayer, D.L., N Cid, and HM Malcolm. Students will know how sea level rise may impact a local freshwater tidal marsh, and will be able to explain the changes to vegetation types. Students will know how the application of road salt impacts water quality and be able to discover the different sources of salt as well as the amount of time that salt stays in the aquatic ecosystem. Ecosphere, 1:1-10. 274 0 obj <> endobj Students will know how to describe the forest community in their schoolyard and will be able to explain differences between two species in terms of one of the following: general health, location, density, carbon storage, or basal area. Conventional food web models are mostly limited to lake or marine ecosystems. Energy Flow in Ecosystems DRAFT. Students will know how the sewage levels in the Hudson River have changed over time, and be able to explain the consequences of these changes. Ecology of the Hudson River Zooplankton Community. They will learn that a lot of carbon/energy moves through the river ecosystem. Part 2: The Invasion of the Zebra Mussels -- Population Changes. Key words: Ecosystem, Food web, Lakes, Rivers Fig-1.1 INTRODUCTION Freshwater ecology is a specialized sub category of the overall study of organisms and the environment. Do preferences change in different habitats or micro-environments? The Amazon rain forest includes hundreds of ecosystems, including canopies, understories, and forest floors. Students will know how land use affects water quality, and be able to calculate a macroinvertebrate diversity index to understand the impact of land use change in watersheds. (Middle School), Schoolyard Ecology Water & Watersheds, Schoolyard Ecology Biodiversity, Ecosystem Consequences of Town Decisions: Agriculture Version, Ecosystems in Action: Cycling of Matter & Energy, Ecosystems in Action: Population & Community Dynamics, Eel Migration in the Hudson Estuary (Middle School), Eel Migration in the Hudson River Estuary (High School), Environmental Impact Statements- Written assessment, Exploring Abiotic Changes due to Zebra Mussels, Exploring Hudson River PCB data (High School), Exploring Hudson River PCB data (Middle School), Exploring Population Change due to Zebra Mussels, Fecal Coliform Bacteria & Oxygen Levels at Manhattan, Fish and Crab Diversity and Richness Along the Hudson River, Fish Populations & Dissolved Oxygen (Snapshot Day), Full Lower Hudson with Submerged Vegetation, Glass Eels in Hudson River Tributaries (Eel Project), Graphing and interpreting zebra mussel data, Gypsy Moth Egg Masses on Cary Institute Grounds, Historical Hudson Valley Temperature & Precipitation (NOAA). Finally, they analyze a real air photo of their school site, identify land cover types, try to quantify these, and ground truth them through field reconnaissance. k� �����M�9� �� /d� Students will know how a large storm affects the flow of water in streams and be able to create a graph that explains their answers to this question. Effects of an invasive bivalve on the Long term record of maximum annual temperature at Poughkeepsie (air). Litter was collected from two marsh plants: Phragmites australis (common reed) and Typha angustifolia (cattail). Have groups share their food webs. Students will know that plants use oxygen underwater and be able to design an experiment that will test this question. Smith. Lessons include using paleoecology to understand change since the last glaciation, and using macroinvertebrates as an indicator for ecosystem health as it relates to land use. Have them note the scale. Students brainstorm and share what they already know about wetlands, and sketch a simple tidal marsh diagram with vegetation zones and appropriate organisms. Researchers at the Cary Institute set up sample plots on the Cary Institute grounds in Millbrook, NY. In an ecosystem, plants and animals all rely on each other to live. These lessons can also be used to explore your schoolyard water cycle using hands-on activities. Hydrofracking is a gas production technique where the natural gas is extracted from rock deep underground using a cocktail of water and chemicals (fracking fluid), injected with high pressure. This question can be answered individually or as a class – if you are doing this as a class, ask students to answer the question first on whiteboards so that you can check for understanding. Students will know how to answer the question, “Are fish more contaminated from different locations in the River?” and be able to provide evidence to support their answer. These data show water quality levels for dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at Manhattan. All are vital links in the Hudson's food web. Students trace water through the community, and understand how filtration, gravity and microbes clean wastewater. Students will know how land use affects water quality and be able to compare water quality in two different aquatic ecosystems. Part 1: “Introduction to the Hudson River Food Webs”. Abiotic are the temperatures, rock and other things that are non-living. The video shows scientists in action as they collect data in the field and gives further information about the effects of zebra mussels. You may want to view the animations students will be viewing during Part 1. This dataset will allow you to explore connections between tick populations, their mouse hosts, and the acorns that feed the mice. Students will know how dissolved oxygen enters water and be able to explain at least two variables that affect the amount of dissolved oxygen in water. Samples were collected from the East Branch of the Wappinger Creek on Cary Institute grounds in Millbrook, NY. Freshwater Biology, 39:103-116. Strayer, D.L., K.A. Discuss what students have created, and create a class-wide food web on the board. endstream endobj startxref These data show the salinity (salt) levels at seven sites along the Hudson River. Students will know the importance of soil as a water filter, and be able to discuss how the composition of the soil impacts its ability to filter pollutants. The Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) is a network of real-time monitoring stations along the Hudson River. Abiotic components play an equal role in the food web of an ecosystem along with biotic components. At 34,375 square miles, it is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. This slide also has photos of the organisms students will learn about in teams. Lastly, students understand that soils in a watershed affect the chemistry and quantity of water as it percolates through them. Í@� Student collect data about their schoolyard, neighborhood and town to estimate the amount of water that runs off these places into a nearby stream. A product such as ‘Protoslo’ helps calm the organisms down, and is available for around $6 from any scientific supply company. Food webs relate directly to the Council’s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, which seeks to establish and maintain an ecosystem that sustains an abundant, productive and diverse community of fish and wildlife. Using aerial photographs Land Classification to determine what covers the schoolyard Land cover percentage (Building on skills from “Candyland Elementary School Land Use” lesson). Students write predictions of how a proposed change to their study site would affect the organisms that live there. Much of my past research has focused on river-floodplain ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest and the importance of these floodplains for fish. River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the landscape, and include the biotic interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic physical and chemical interactions of its many parts. Lonsdale. They will also know that the Hudson River food web is changing in response to the zebra mussel invasion, and will be able to make predictions about how native organisms will be affected by this invasion. A short reading about pollution that causes a change in pH of aquatic systems. Photos and descriptive information about common invasive plants found in and around Dutchess County, NY. This allowed submerged aquatic vegetation to grow at greater depths, become more plentiful, and increase in biomass. In this dataset, students can explore how the prevalence of Lyme disease has changed over time in the Northeast. River ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. is an important measure of water quality and can be used to predict information about the local community of organisms. Have you ever thought about the animals and plants that live in and around a river and how they depend on each other for food? Any place is an ecosystem, and biodiversity studies can take place in a forest, stream, pond, or even cracks of the sidewalk. Do large soil organisms (e.g., worms) speed up decomposition? To collect your own plankton, a great option is to use a plankton tow, which can be easily made from household items. Lower level students will focus on predator-prey relationships, or one-step relationships, such as the fact that if a new mussel is introduced, there will be fewer phytoplankton in the river. and Where does it live? From 1999-2015, researchers and students aboard the sloop Clearwater tracked the populations of over 100 aquatic macroinvertebrate species - mostly fish and crabs - in the Hudson River using trawl nets. N2 - Ecohydrological modeling of food webs can be a useful tool in stream/river health assessment, restoration, and management by providing insight into the long-term dynamics of biota. Wastewater enters the Hudson River from point sources including municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, combined sewer overflows, urban storm water, and tributaries of the Hudson River such as Fishkill Creek. Greater Yellowstone’s diversity and natural wealth includes the hydrother-mal features, wildlife, vegetation, lakes, and geologic wonders like the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River. Land cover types can be measured by using a grid overlay to aid in determining percent coverage. The curriculum also encourages students to develop and test claims comparing different forest types. 1998. Students use topographic maps to determine watershed boundaries and better understand how watersheds are delineated. Riverine ecosystem, any spring, stream, or river viewed as an ecosystem. How is the flux of carbon in an ecosystem affected by sunlight? In this module, students will learn about the history of PCB's in the Hudson, how PCB's get into the fish we eat, and what has been done to remove PCB's from the Hudson River. Producers are usually green plants and are essential for the survival of the community. The ecology of the river refers to the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their environment – the ecosystem. Students test factors that promote the growth of microbes, then use their findings to make compost. What factors determine how much water plants lose through transpiration? In addition, the field trip is surrounded by classroom lessons that teach key concepts such as the effect of abiotic and biotic factors on stream ecosystems, food webs, and data analysis and exploration. Students design and carry out indoor or outdoor investigations to learn more about animals' feeding interactions. School sites are designed for humans and human activities. Through a game and outdoor investigation, students compare the behavior of animals in different areas of the schoolyard and experience an authentic ecological research method. Basic microbe and bacteria ID guide for students. Ranking of 12 patch‐scale food webs in the River Tiber (Rome, Italy) across different species extinction scenarios (A‐D) in terms of vulnerability to biodiversity loss, as calculated from food web Robustness (indicated as V R) or Resistance (indicated as V RC). These graphs are contained in the PowerPoint so they can be used during the discussion. In addition to providing units that include secondary data, these materials also highlight the ecological nature of science by providing lessons that focus on key habits of mind to help students think like an ecologist. Environmental Science Technology, 34:1204- Students will be able to explain phenology, and explore how the phenology of mayflies in local stream changes over time. When you draw all the chains together you end up with a food web. Students use online interactive food webs to learn about different communities that live in the Hudson River and view different species of plankton with microscopes. The toxification of the Hudson River has had a dramatic impact on the health of the river's ecosystem as well as the ability of people living along the river to use and enjoy it. 4. Students will know how much water enters and exits their school building, creating a water budget and be able to understand how land cover affects the water that enters the school campus. Students analyze a trial involving a dispute about a composting business, then outline how a Special Investigator could gather evidence to help settle the case. 6 minutes ago. By exploring food chains and food webs, you will discover how energy is transferred from one organism to another. This dataset shows the stream depth, conductivity, discharge, and temperature of the Wappinger Creek. Unlike biology, ecology refers to the study of not just organisms but how they react, and are affected by the natural surrounding environment or ecosystem. Students will know the functions of wetlands and will be able to explain at least one function performed by wetlands. There are separate versions of the lessons that are appropriate for middle school and high school students. Living and nonliving elements of a schoolyard affect each other. What factors determine preferences for different seed types? This food web shows the role played by invertebrates (animals without backbones), such as mayflies and stoneflies, in freshwater ecosystems. The collect and display their data in appropriate graphs in order to examine the factors that influence an animal's ability to survive. How does dissolved oxygen enter into aquatic ecosystems? Data show a 123-year record (1885-2008) of first arrival date of select migratory birds in Dutchess County, NY. See more ideas about aquatic ecosystem, ecosystems, aquatic. Students will know how to answer the question, “Are some fish less harmful to eat from the Hudson River than others?” and be able to provide evidence to support their answer. Students will know how temperature affects dissolved oxygen and be able to create a graph showing this relationship. The Hudson River Estuary, J. Levinton and J. Waldman, editors. Students will know what lives in the Hudson River, and will be able to create a food web drawing to represent the organisms living in the river. Dec 14, 2016 - Explore adam sumner's board "aquatic ecosystem" on Pinterest. This dataset examines how traffic congestion and associated pollutants are related to the demographics of the populations that live near traffic. Students make food webs of their study site, then trace how a change in one population could affect other populations within the web. Decomposers are also a part of the food web. Students will learn to use "hedging language" in discussing results. Students will know  how to estimate flow in a river or stream, and be able to explain how how Hudson River flow is expected to change as predicted by global climate change models. 1999. A food chain shows how a group of living things get their food. Students will learn how different elements of the schoolyard ecosystem are linked, how scientists compile data and search for patterns and relationships, and how these relationships can be described. A brief reading summarizing major changes in the Hudson River watershed, including a discussion of when an ecosystem "bends" and "breaks". Plants in the river are also important in food webs—microscopic algae are often eaten while alive, while larger aquatic plants mainly enter food chains after they have died. There are basically three different types of food chains in the ecosystem, namely – Grazing food chain (GFC) – This is the normal food chain that we observe in which plants are the producers and the energy flows from the producers to the herbivores (primary consumers), then to carnivores (secondary consumers) and so on. Organisms, live or prepared specimens, Part 1 Students will know what lives in the Hudson River, and will be able to create a food web drawing to represent the organisms living in the river. Students will know how the hydrofracking fluid affected the health of the trees and soil in the forest, and will be able to explain the drawbacks of flowback water with respect to ecosystem health. Students will know what level of turbidity affects aquatic organism, and will be able to explain the results of an experiment to determine these levels. How did Foundry Cove get to be “the most cadmium polluted site in the world”? %%EOF The Stream Ecology Unit (YES-Net) enlists students as scientists as they collect data on the numbers and kinds of aquatic insects found in local streams. The food web in the ocean ecosystem is subject to tidal zones, coral reefs, river mouths, estuaries and reefs where saltwater is predominant. Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The interconnectedness of how organisms are involved in energy transfer within an ecosystem is vital to understanding food webs and how they apply to real-world … Students will understand the effect of "nature preserve" size on the diversity and abundance of organisms protected within the preserve. These data show the annual average water temperature for the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, NY from 1946-2012. The next day they process their findings. Students will know how tides affect plant community distribution and nutrient uptake in a freshwater tidal wetland and will be able to investigate their ideas through a field trip to the wetland. Students will be able to discuss habitat needs and feeding habits of specific macroinvertebrates and understand connections that exist between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. The SWEAP materials and activities assist teachers in guiding their students as they compare the ecology of three small watersheds with different land uses (e.g., agricultural, forested, developed). Food Web Example 8 Oct '14 60Ecology & Ecosystem 60. Help students understand that living organisms can change abiotic factors in the environment, and these changes in turn can cause biota in the water to respond. Students should save their webs in order to add to them later. Students will know where nitrogen exists and in which forms, and will be able to draw a diagram showing the movement of nitrogen in ecosystems. The sun is the starting source of energy for CVNP’s ecosystems. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Summary Students participate in a series of activities to learn how an invasive species has changed the Hudson River food web and be able to explain the impact of the introduction of the zebra mussel on the food web. Includes the major groups of living things in ponds, and a short discussion of eutrophication, along with the importance of detritus. endstream endobj 275 0 obj <. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Following the Invasion of the Zebra Mussel: Long-term Results from the Hudson River  How does salt pollution impact plants & animals? The central investigation of this unit helps students answer the question "Where does the stuff living things are made of go after those organisms die?" 0 times. Students work in groups to create displays that show what happens to a dead leaf over time. Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) Ecosystems are often destroyed due to the impact of humans or other environmental disasters, such as a flood or drought. Models can be created to represent complex aspects of the real world. 8 Oct '14 59Ecology & Ecosystem 59. Students should be aware of the decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in water transparency from the previous part of the lesson. Students will learn about the zebra mussel invasion and zebra mussel ecology. Explore: Introduce four habitats that are subsets of the larger Hudson River habitat: marsh, brackish channel, freshwater channel, and fresh water shallows. In this module, students learn how to monitor a local waterway for changes in water quality, and how the Hudson River has changed over time due to pollutants including nitrates, phosphates, and salt. Illustration of how food sources influence Lyme transmission. By 1992 they had spread throughout the freshwater and slightly brackish parts of the estuary. Explain that in ecology, we don’t use these words to describe ecosystem changes – we just explain the changes. Once they have drawn their food webs, students can view and critique other food webs. They also imagine studies that show how organisms relate to the physical environment -- air, water, and soil. Students will know how to test for salt pollution in their local stream and will be able to explain whether their stream is contaminated by salt. Primary producers – These are the organisms that produce the source of food for the community. Students will know how the zebra mussel has changed the Hudson River ecosystem and be able to explain how a biotic change affects the abiotic conditions in the Hudson River. Food Web In any ecosystem there are many food chains and, generally, most plants and animals are part of several chains. Students will evaluate available resources in order to create and maintain a native species environment. It also depends on your ‘point of view’ – if you are a phytoplankton and your population has declined due to extensive filter feeding by zebra mussels, the invasion was “bad”. Food Webs of the Hudson River, Part 1 If so, what processes are involved that may influence the amount of rainfall, or throughfall, that reaches the ground? Incorporating secondary data into ecology can provide students with a way of supporting their claims from smaller research projects and connecting their work with the real world. Long term record of minimum annual temperature at Poughkeepsie (air). These levels can be illustrated in a trophic pyramid where organisms are grouped by the role they play in the food web. An overview of the history of wastewater in New York, including historic newspaper articles from the 19th century. A food web consists of all the food chains in a single ecosystem. These resources may be utilized in many ways based on human needs. A map depicting the story of PCBs in the Hudson River. How big is it? Hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone or severe tropical storm. When we think about the water cycle, most of us think of a diagram with arrows moving from alpine peaks into the big, blue ocean. Trapa is a floating invasive species that was introduced to the Hudson River. complex food web Dead salmon aren't so much at the bottom of the food chain as at the center of a complex food web that extends from river bottoms to forests far … The accuracy of the map can be improved through the knowledge gained by field checking. Common algae found in the Hudson estuary answering: What is it? Tell students that they are going to act out the part of the food web that is difficult to see. Using data from the Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observation System (HRECOS) you can track the storm and its effect on the river. The incredible wealth of diversity on our planet is something to be celebrated with students of all ages! Understanding how human activity influences the Hudson is a prime concern for the maintenance of the river, especially as the human population grows. Researchers searched the following substrates within the plots: live trees, dead trees, leaf litter, and rocks. How do two species differ in the amount of transpiration that takes place from their leaves over the course of 1 week? The River Ecology program focuses their research on; providing information on the overall structure and function of aquatic ecosystems; providing specific information on available resources; and evaluating various management, consveration, and restoration practices, to determine how such practices affect aquatic ecosystems. Students will know the difference between a pulse and a press event with regards to eutrophication and be able to graph the growth of algae over time. This will provide information and review about the food webs you will discuss with students. 0% average accuracy. Divide students into six teams, one for each organism. Pace, M.L., D.L. Students will identify Hudson Valley rocks and be able to explain why the rocks came to be as they are in each place. This case study allows students to understand community level changes, which they can then apply to other systems. Students will know why we call some species invasive and be able to discuss several traits that are common among many invasive species and be able to explain the effects of at least one invasive species on ecosystems in the Hudson Valley. In 2016, a select number of sites began to classify and count each piece of trash they pick up. Agriculture version. Studying ecosystems can be done everywhere, and you don't need a lot of materials to do so! But that same dead oak tree is food for more insects, which means more meals for woodpeckers. then feed on. Students will know the factors that change dissolved oxygen levels and be able to design an experiment to test their ideas. Students learn that there may be a range of land use activities in any given watershed and we can use aerial photographs to determine the relative proportion of different land use practices in a large area. Students will interpret geological maps, identify the permeability rates in different glacial deposits, and be able to infer which local townships can best benefit from residential wells. Because the snails are fully aquatic, mercury cycled back into the river's detrital food web when they died. Students collect data about the "seed rain" in the their schoolyard, while also learning to identify trees and seeds in their schoolyard. This unit includes a more in-depth investigation of three species: zebra mussels, water chestnut, and common reed. Students will also gain experience analyzing data by exploring how levels of PCB's vary over time, location, and between different species of fish. Students will be able to discuss the life cycles of common macroinvertebrates and use data to compare macroinvertebrate larval abundance to adult numbers and make inferences. Unless we live in such a place, this idealized diagram does not teach us where our water comes from or what happens to rain that falls on our neighborhoods. The Hudson River has one of the highest levels of PCB pollution of any river on the East Coast. This unit aims to increase students understanding of schoolyard tree biodiversity, and engage students in thinking about local forests as dynamic, exciting systems. You may wish to show this short video two or three times, discussing the information after each viewing. Students will learn about salinity in the Hudson River Estuary and graph changes in salinity across time and space. Through soil testing and map reading, they learn that soil composition varies from site to site depending on the underlying rock type, overlying vegetation, time, topography, climate, and chemicals carried by water percolating through the soil. Students should begin to fill in the ‘1993-2004’ column in the chart “Trends in the Living and Non-Living Environment” in their packets as their classmates provide the information. This is a simplified dataset created from the full data collected by the Eel Project. Caraco, J.J. Cole, S. Findlay, and M. Pace. Scientists use models to study complex real world situations. On average, only 10% of the energy from an organism is transferred to its consumer.

river ecosystem food web

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